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Questions and Answers

  • Q1. How best to look after your mouth

  • Q1. How best to look after your mouth Video of how to clean your teeth LINK

    How best to look after your mouth If possible, do the following either yourself or with the help of a carer.

    Brush your teeth twice a day, most importantly at night time well, with a soft toothbrush and fluoride-containing toothpaste.

    Use soft small headed brush on the gums with circular motion like a massage

    If your gums bleed brush them more and after 2 weeks you will notice them get healthier

    Routine method

    Start at the front top teeth and work your way around all the gum teeth surface until you reach the very back tooth, ensure that you clean around the back tooth and carry on brushing the palatal surfaces of all teeth and gums all the way from one top tooth to the opposite side then clean around that opposite back tooth and continue to brush the outer gum teeth surfaces until you join up to where you started, then repeat the process on the lower teeth.

    If the gums bleed brush them more and ensure that you floss the troublesome area more frequently

    Healthy gums do not bleed and if this persists when you have continued to clean your teeth well do seek advice from your dentist

    Rather than using alcohol containing expensive mouth washes rinse your mouth after meals and at night. Use water or 0.9% sodium chloride solution (saline or salt water). You can make a fresh sodium chloride solution for each rinse by dissolving half a teaspoon of salt in 250 ml fresh water. Use cool or warm water, whatever your prefer.

    Remove any debris that you can see in your mouth or on your tongue by gentle brushing with a soft toothbrush. If possible, do this regularly but mainly after meals and at bedtime. Foam sticks are an alternative if gentle brushing with a soft toothbrush causes pain or bleeding.

    If you wear dentures, remove them at night. Clean dentures with a soft toothbrush and toothpaste. Soak overnight in a denture solution containing sodium hypochlorite. Rinse before use the next day. (Soak metal dentures in chlorhexidine solution.)

    Use disclosing tablets -they stain you’re your teeth bright colours where you have left debris behind. Kids love them and it’s a great way to reinforce good tooth brushing technique

    If you have a high risk of developing mouth problems (for example, if you have radiotherapy to the head or neck), it is best to increase the frequency of the measures above. For example, rinse your mouth every 1-2 hours.

    More about mouthwashes

    Water or saline (described above) are the most commonly used mouthwashes. They are soothing, do no harm, and are safe to use as often as you like.

    Chlorhexidine mouthwash is sometimes advised if you are at risk of mouth infection. However, you should not normally use this more than twice a day. It contains alcohol which may sting, especially if your mouth is inflamed. If you do use this twice a day, you can always use water or sodium chloride mouthwashes as often as you like in between.

    Other mouthwashes such as ascorbic acid solution, hydrogen peroxide mouthwash or sodium bicarbonate mouthwash may be advised by a doctor or nurse in certain circumstances.

    It is best not to use glycerine or lemon mouthwashes. They often increase the sensation of a dry mouth.

    Some mouth problems that may occur if you are unwell

    Dry mouth

    Dry mouth has various causes. Simple measures such as drinking frequent sips of water and chewing sugar-free gum will often help. This may be all that is needed in many cases. Artificial saliva or medication to stimulate the salivary glands is sometimes used. See separate leaflet called 'Dry Mouth' for details.

    Oral thrush (oral candida)

    Thrush is an infection caused by a yeast germ called candida. Small numbers of candida commonly live in a healthy mouth. They are usually harmless. However, certain situations may cause an overgrowth of candida which may lead to a bout of oral thrush. These include a dry mouth, and if you are in general poor health. The classical symptom is for white spots to develop in the mouth. However, often there are no white spots and areas within the mouth may just become red and sore. Most cases are treated with drops, lozenges or a gel which contains an anti-thrush drug such as nystatin, amphotericin or miconazole. Anti-thrush tablets such as fluconazole are sometimes used. See separate leaflet called 'Thrush - Oral' for details.

    Mouth ulcers

    Aphthous mouth ulcers are the most common type. They are painful, and can recur from time to time. Each bout of ulcers usually goes away in time without treatment. Mouthwashes and steroid lozenges may ease the pain, and may help the ulcers to heal more quickly. For details see separate leaflet called 'Mouth Ulcers (Aphthous Type)'. Other types of mouth ulcer sometimes develop. Your doctor will advise on treatment.

    Halitosis (bad breath)

    In most cases of persistent bad breath, the smell comes from a build-up of bacteria within the mouth - in food debris, plaque and gum disease, or in a coating on the back of the tongue or due to gastric regurgitation. Good oral hygiene will sometimes solve the problem. That is, routine mouth care described above, and in addition (if possible) regular flossing, scraping the back of the tongue, and antiseptic mouthwashes. See separate leaflet called 'Bad Breath' for details. Other causes of bad breath may develop in people who are unwell. For example, oral thrush, a dry mouth, and tumours in the mouth can cause bad breath. If these can be treated then this may clear the bad breath.

    Oral mucositis

    Mucositis is a painful inflammation and ulceration of the lining of the mouth (the mucous membranes). Mucositis is a common side effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, especially radiotherapy that involves the head and neck. It occurs because the rapidly dividing cells on the inside lining of the mouth are affected by the treatment that is directed at the rapidly dividing cancer cells. Mucositis tends to get better 2-3 weeks after the course of chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment has finished. However, whilst you have mucositis you are more prone to develop other mouth problems such as infection and dry mouth. The routine mouth care described above before, during and after treatment reduces the severity of mucositis, and helps prevent secondary infection. Treatment for pain, dry mouth and infection may also be needed.

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  • Q2. How to be referred?
  • The first question is -Do you need a referral? 

    Your dentist or doctor needs to refer you to us because of NHS regulations  Have you been injured?

    URGENT treatment (within 30 hours) is indicated in endodontic (Root canal) and implant related nerve injuries (link to how to get referral and contact pages) link to contact page referral proforma

    Ideally referral is recommended based on the cause of injury

    Endo root canal > 24-48 hours 

    Implant > 24-48 hours

    Wisdom teeth  < 3-6months

    LA > 3-6 months

    Orthognathic > 3-6months

    Fracture > 3-6months

    If you have had surgery or dental treatment and you notice any of the effects listed above after a local anaesthetic should have worn off – say 6 hours later – it is really you seek advice from the surgeon/hospital/dentist.

    With any nerve injury you may ask your dentist to prescribe you short term  high dose steroids and anti inflammatory medication to minimise inflammation around the damaged nerve or elect to take some Folic acid supplements,  but there is no evidence base to support this practise. 

    What you need to do

    Ask your dentist or doctor to write, fax us a referral letter link to contact/clinician referral

    Trigeminal Nerve Injuries referral

    The trigeminal nerve is the large sensory nerve that supplies feeling to your face, mouth, eyes, nose and scalp. 

    Nerve injury can sometimes result from dental treatments such as dental injections, root canals, insertion of dental implants and removal of teeth or other surgical treatments. These dental injuries affect the trigeminal nerve  usually the lower lip or tongue areas— causing a mixture of pain, numbness and strange sensations that may be present all the time or intermittently.

    Trigeminal nerve injuries can be extremely distressing for patients. Although the majority of patients regain normal sensation and function within a few weeks or months, some are left with abnormal sensation or pain, which can cause problems with speech and chewing.

    Examples of some patients with these nerve injuries …….link

    Signs and symptoms – What you may be experiencing

    Trigeminal nerve injuries can cause episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face where the branches of the trigeminal nerve are distributed — the lips, eyes, nose, scalp, forehead, upper jaw and lower jaw. Sometimes you may notice pain with touch or when a cold breeze hits your face.

    Eating, speaking, drinking, brushing your teeth, shaving or applying makeup may all be difficult because of the changes in feeling. Examples of some patients with these nerve injuries …….link

    How you can get referred to us

    You will need your dentist or your doctor to send or fax through a referral letter addressed to Tara Renton to our department at Kings College Hospital (Fax number 0203 299 1210). The letter or fax must contain your doctors /dentist name, address and contact details, your name, date of birth, address and contact details (also your NHS number). The cause and duration of your nerve injury must be clear 

    If you have had lip nerve injury related to implant treatment or root canal you may need URGENT treatment. Other types of nerve injuries require less urgent management.

    Once you have been referred to us we will send you a login and password to enter the patient resource area of this website so that you can supply us with;

    your details 

    information about your pain, 

    daily function 

    and we ask you to complete some questionnaire online about how you are affected psychologically.

    We will send you an appointment to see Tara Renton on clinic at Kings College Hospital in the clinic. 

    Before you come to clinic make sure that you have any relevant letters, results of tests and copies of xrays and scans for us to look at.

    Contact details of department link to contact page

    Travel details are …….link

    Are you having difficulty being referred? If your dentist or doctor is reluctant to refer you. You can attend the dental A&E walk in clinic at Kings College Hospital open 9am – 2pm weekdays but your full consultation will not take place until a later date.

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  • Q3. How Long will a referral take?
  • If you need urgent treatment we will contact you and your dentist directly to ensure you get the right treatment. So ensure you give us your correct details


    Normal referrals will result in a consultation with 2-6 weeks

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  • Q4. How to make a complaint
  • KCH dental school, we take complaints very seriously and try to ensure that all patients are pleased with their treatment experience. If a patient complains, they are to be dealt with courteously and promptly so that the matter is resolved as quickly as possible.

    Our aim is to react to complaints in the way in which we would want our complaint about a service to be handled in accordance with NHS governance regulations. We are well aware that we can learn from any mistake that we make and we will therefore respond to customers' concerns in a caring and sensitive manner.

    Clinicians and patients  are reminded of the requirements to notify the Care Quality Commission of injuries to the nervous system.  These can be reported to the Commission using the form which can be found at www.cqc.org.uk under “Organisations we regulate”

    Link to complaint video


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  • Q5. What you can do to help your nerve?
  • High dose steroids and or non steroidal anti inflammatory medication in the early days of nerve injury should reduce local inflammation and in theory should minimise further damage to the injured nerve but paradoxically could interfere with the healing process. To date there is little to no evidence that this intervention will minimise the extent and duration of trigeminal nerve injury.


    There is also limited evidence that Folic acid or B12 supplements will assist neural repair


    The clinician causing the nerve injury must be honest and caring with the patient concerned. Homecheck, or a phone call to the patient within 6-24 hours post surgery, ensures that the clinician know if there is any extreme pain or neuropathy that may be associated with nerve injury and avail the patient of the appropriate intervention if required. 


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  • Q6. What you need to tell your doctor and dentist?
  • We have produced a card that you can print out to advise dental pofessionals

    “Dear Dentist,

    I am a patient who has suffered nerve injury, following previous dental treatment. 

    Please provide preventative and routine dentistry as normal. 

    If I have chronic neuropathic pain and/or acute flare-up in the area of my nerve injury be aware my mouth may be more sensitive. 

    Avoid ID blocks by using Articaine buccal infiltrations

    Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . if there is any question about my patient management needs. Thank you for taking account of my injury this way.”

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  • Q7.  What do dental qualifications mean?

  • Most dentists take 4-5 years to qualify in the UK. When they qualify as a dentist they gain BDS (Bachelor Dental Science) degree

    Then they have to complete 1 year Foundation training to get registered with the General dental council (the dentists regulatory body) Link GDC During this time many dentists take the MJDF examinations at the Royal Colleges (Glasgow, Edinburgh, London).

    Then they can set up in general practice or carry on training

    Training as a specialist (you can check to see if your dentist is a specialist by logging onto GDC website and typing in your dentists name. Nearly all dental specialists have to pass a membership or fellowship exam in their chosen specialism after 3 years further training.

    The dental specialites are;

    Oral Surgery Link RCS Curriculum oral surgery

    Orthodontist Link RCS Curriculum orthodontics

    Paedodontics (Childrens dentistry) Link RCS Curriculum paedodontics

    Endodontics (Root canal specialist) Link RCS Curriculum endodontics

    Periodontist Link RCS Curriculum endodontics

    Restorative specialist in crown and bridge or prosthodontics (dentures)

    Oral medicine, Oral pathology, Oral microbiology, Oral immunology are specialists usually based in dental schools

    Once a specialist you can describe yourself as such and practise on the high street or in hospital. If you are ever in doubt about your dentists qualifications you can always ring the GDC to check. NB there is no specialism in IMPLANTs and there are many additional training exams health professionals can take.

    In order to become a consultant additional training is required (usually at least 2 years after becoming a specialist) when they take the exit examination. Intercollegiate surgical fellowship examination (ISFE) in their chosen specialism

    Academic consultants (lecturers, senior lecturers, readers and Professors all have to have PhDs and other higher education training qualifications)

    The lowest form of additional training ins certificate, followed by Diploma, followed by Masters degree then PhD.

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Q8. How can I keep my mouth healthy?



I you or your child need several dental fillings this is not normalhttp://www.parentdish.com/2011/04/27/parents-busted-for-kids-rotten-teeth/

You should not need dental restorations on a regular basis

What is dental disease?                                                                            

Dental disease is a very variable condition, it can range of a mild build up of plaque or gingivitis, to a large amount of tartar, rotten tooth roots and painful mouths.

The bacteria that live under the tartar can spread through the body and cause damage to internal organs, so it is not just a mouth problem.

It is very common, 80% of patients suffer from some form of dental disease.

It is a totally preventable condition, by feeding good quality foods and cleaning your pet's teeth regularly, you can ensure your pet doesn't suffer.

Tooth decay is the destruction of tooth structure and can affect both the enamel (the outer coating of the tooth) and the dentin layer of the tooth.

Tooth decay occurs when foods containing carbohydrates (sugars and starches), such as breads, cereals, milk, soda, fruits, cakes, or candy are left on the teeth. Bacteria that live in the mouth digest these foods, turning them into acids. The bacteria, acid, food debris, and saliva combine to form plaque, which clings to the teeth. The acids in plaque dissolve the enamel surface of the teeth, creating holes in the teeth called cavities.


General Information about Oral Cancer

Oral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lips, mouth, or throat. Oral cancer risk factors include drinking and smoking, Combining these habits significantly increase your risk of developing oral cancer. The most common sites are floor of mouth, tongue and lips.

If you notice a new lesion in your mouth that is painless and not healing see your doctor dentist immediately

Early treatment of oral cancer really does improve your life expectancy


How to minimise tooth decay

Tooth Brushing

Dietary advice

Fluoride always use Fluoride toothpaste. Check with your dentist about use of supplemental fluoride, which strengthens your teeth. Drink fluoridated water. At least a pint of fluoridated water each day is needed to protect children from tooth decay.

Fissure sealants - Ask your dentist about dental sealants (a plastic protective coating) applied to the chewing surfaces of your back teeth (molars) to protect them from decay.

Visit your dentist regularly for professional cleanings and oral exam (once a year unless you are having specific problems)

Useful link for education http://www.sign.ac.uk/guidelines/fulltext/47/index.html

Tooth Brushing to prevent tooth decay:

How to brush your teeth Video link http://www.videojug.com/film/how-to-brush-your-teeth


Care of childrens teeth http://www.babycenter.com/0_tooth-care-for-children_11282.bc

Brush your teeth at least twice a day with afluoride-containing toothpaste. Preferably, brush after each meal and especially before going to bed.

Clean between your teeth daily with dental floss or interdental cleaners, such as the Oral-B Interdental Brush, Reach Stim-U-Dent, or Sulcabrush.

Eat nutritious and balanced meals and limit snacks. Avoid carbohydrates such as candy, pretzels and chips, which can remain on the tooth surface. If sticky foods are eaten, brush your teeth soon afterwards.

Dietary advice (from http://worldental.org/nutrition/10-most-healthy-foods-for-teeth/665/)

Foods bad for your teeth With a recent rise in preschool tooth decay, dental health experts are giving a thumbs-down to certain snacks and treats. Here are the worst offenders: ANYTHING containing sugar, refined carbo hydrates and acids all provide material for the bacteria in your mouth to make acid and dissolve your teeth. The more frequently you eat drink these foods, the longer your teeth are bathing in acid during the day causing dental decay.

1. Sticky candies and sweets. Not only are these foods laden with sugar, but their stickiness also allows that sugar to stay on the tooth surface for long periods of time and do maximum damage. So pass on things like taffy and caramel.

2. Fizzy drinks. Soft drinks are the leading source of excess sugar consumption among children and teens. Carbonated beverages also contain phosphoric and citric acids which erode tooth enamel, making them doubly bad.

3. Starchy foods. Foods made with lots of refined sugar and flour (think white bread, crisps, pastries) can leave lots of doughy bits lodged between teeth after eating.

4. Juices. Yes, fruit juices can contain lots of vitamins and good things, but when you let your child drink them slowly over the course of the day, it leaves their teeth constantly coated in the sugars found in juice and exposed to the corroding acids they contain. Serve juices at mealtimes, and let your child keep water in that sippy cup she seems to always want handy.

5. Sugared cereals. Cereal makers are trying hard to make us feel better about these boxes of fun by touting their increased whole grain content, but a boatload of sugar (on a starchy flake) is still a bad idea.

6. Fruit gummies. It’s so easy to feel good about anything called “fruit,” isn’t it? But those rolled-up sheets of fruit and their gummy-shaped cousins are a whole lot of sticky sugar with very little nutritional return. Go for real fruit instead, which doesn’t adhere to tooth surfaces so easily.

7. Sports drinks. The association with activity and exercise can subtly mask the real content of most sports drinks—sugar and acids. Some studies have even shown sports drinks to be more damaging than carbonated soft drinks on tooth enamel. So save these for immediately after intense activity, or eliminate them from your kids’ diet altogether.

8. Acidic citrus fruits. Some kids develop a taste for really tart citrus fruits like lemons and limes. But be aware that frequent snacking or sucking on these fruits exposes their teeth to highly corrosive levels of acids.

9. ANYTHING containing sugar or acidic content that is nibbled or sipped on all day.


Foods good for your teeth. 

1.Green tea -It contains polyphenols, antioxidant plant compounds that prevent plaque from adhering to your teeth and help reduce your chances of developing cavities and gum disease. Tea also has potential for reducing bad breath because it inhibits the growth of the bacteria that cause the odor. Many green teas also contain fluoride (from the leaves and the water it’s steeped in), which helps protect tooth enamel from decay and promotes healthy teeth.

2. Milk and yogurt-Unsweetened yogurt and milk are good for your teeth. They have a low acidity. It means that the gradual wearing away of the teeth, also called dental erosion, is less. In addition they are low in sugar, that means less dental decay, too. Milk also is a good source of calcium, that keeps our teeth healthy. Calcium is the main component of teeth and bones, as we know.

3. Cheese- It is low carbohydrate and has a high calcium and phosphate content that provides important benefits for your healthy teeth. It helps balance your mouth’s pH, preserves and rebuilds tooth enamel, produces saliva, kills the bacteria that cause cavities and gum disease. Cheese contains calcium, too and can actually reduce dental decay

4. Chewing gum One study found that a chewing gum that contains the sweetener xylitol temporarily retarded the growth of bacteria that cause tooth decay. 

.5. Healthy diet providing vitamins 

Fruits Different fruits like apples, strawberries, citrus fruits, specially kiwis, contain a lot of vitamin C. It is considered the cement that holds all of your cells together, so just as it’s vital for your skin, it’s important for the health of your gum tissue. If you don’t get enough vitamin C, researches show that the collagen network in your gums can break down, making your gums tender and more susceptible to the bacteria that cause periodontal disease.

Vegetables Pumpkin, carrots, sweet potato, broccoli are full of vitamin A. This vitamin is absolutely necessary for the formation of tooth enamel. Apart form that, crunchy vegetables cleanse and stimulate your gums, making them healthy.

Onions This vegetable contains powerful antibacterial sulfur compounds. Tests showed that onions kill various types of bacteria. Researches indicate that they are most powerful when eaten freshly peeled and raw. It may be not so tasty but good teeth are guaranteed

Sesame seeds are also high in calcium, which helps preserve the bone around your teeth and gums. But firstly, it is very delicious.

Animal food - Beef, chicken, turkey, eggs – all of them contain phosphorous. Calcium, with the help of vitamin D and phosphorous, creates our bones system. These elements keep teeth stronger and healthier by protecting them from teeth decay.

Water Healthy water not only purer, but it cleanses the mouth, allowing the saliva to work wonders depositing essential minerals back into the weakened teeth. Drinking water keeps gums hydrated and helps wash away trapped food particles that decompose in the mouth and cause bad breath.



Proof of the caries-prevention power of fluoride has been available for years. Fluoride supplements are routinely given to children whose fluoride intake is deemed below the recommended level of 0.05 to 0.07 mg/kg body weight or whose risk for caries is high. The use of fluoride supplements in the form of drops, tablets, or lozenges began before the introduction of fluoride toothpaste and used to be an important source of fluoride exposure. 



The biggest sources of fluoride exposure are water and toothpaste, but other sources include mouth rinses, fluoride-coated dental floss, infant formula, and fluoride gels and varnishes applied at the dentist's office. The current supplementation recommendations are based on whether the child is drinking optimally fluoridated water, but they do not take into account other sources of exposure. Predicting actual fluoride exposure is very difficult because one cannot tell exactly how much toothpaste a child swallows, how much fluoridated water or beverages a child drinks, or how much fluoride is in food prepared with fluoridated water that the child eats. In addition, because of genetic variability, the same amount of exposure can have different outcomes in different children.






Q9. Why do my gums bleed


  • Healthy gums DO NOT bleed
  • This is a sign of inflammation of your gums caused by poor oral hygiene You will need to improve your brushing and flossing technique
  • How to brush your teeth Video link http://www.videojug.com/film/how-to-brush-your-teeth
  • http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2011/feb/08/how-to-brush-your-teeth



Q10. What do I need to know about crowns and bridge work?


When a tooth is root treated its life expectancy is reduced to approximately 10 years. Any destruction of tooth material is ill advised. Crowns should really only be prescribed for root canal treated teeth to reduce the likelihood of tooth cusps breaking off due to increased fragility of the non vital tooth. See link below

Porcelain pornography by Martin Kelleher I write to raise some ...




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  • Q11. What do I need to know about dental Veneers?


    Any destruction of tooth material is ill advised. Crowns should really only be prescribed for root canal treated teeth to reduce the likelihood of tooth cusps breaking off due to increased fragility of the non vital tooth. See link below

    Porcelain pornography by Martin Kelleher I write to raise some ...





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    • Q11. What do I need to know about dental implant work?


      Q: How can I tell if I am healthy enough to have dental implants?

      A: Patients who should not have dental implants include;


      Poor oral hygeine

      patients on bisphosphonate medication 

      patients who may have compromised healing  including;



      Diabetes Meillitis type 1 and 2

      Renal failure


      Malignant tumours

      Leukaemia Lymphoma Myeloma

      Collagen disease

      HIV AIDS


      Medicated on  Steroids/ Immunosuppressants/ chemotherapy organ transplant or Bisphosphonates 

      Q: Where dental implants are concerned, are there risks of the body rejecting them?

      A: less than half of dental implants are expected to last beyond 10 years

      Q: How long will implants last?

      A: 56% of dental implants last 10year

      Q: Do implants require special care?

      A: Presume that dental implants are natural teeth and treat them that way.  Return for regular check-ups.  Brush and floss.  Implant should only be provided to patients with excellent oral hygiene.

      Q: How long does the whole dental implant process take?  Will I be without teeth or unable to eat for a long time?

      A: The several phases of treatment include;

      Consultations scanning , xrays, consent and careful planning.  

      First surgical visit Most implants will remain covered, underneath the gums, for 3 to 6 months.  During this time, osseointegration --the biological bonding of the jawbone to the implant--occurs.  Through this healing period, you will probably wear your modified denture or a temporary denture or bridge and maintain normal activities without restriction.  You will need to follow a modified, soft diet for the first couple of weeks. 

      There are occasions, one stage implant placements or when extensive bone grafting is to be performed, when patients may be asked not to wear their removable dentures for a period of time. When this is necessary we'll do all we can to help our patient through this transition.

      Second surgery usually 3-6 months after implant placement.  At this time, the top of the implants will be uncovered from under the gums and a small metal post or extension will be attached to the implant(s). 

      In the last phase, which usually starts 2-6 weeks after the second phase, your new replacement teeth are created and fitted.  This phase involves a series of appointments to make impressions of your mouth and to "try-in" your replacement teeth at key steps in their fabrication.  The try-in sessions are necessary to ensure that the size, shape, color and fit of your new teeth will completely blend with and match your individual facial characteristics and remaining natural teeth (if any).  The third phase is usually completed within 4 to 8 weeks.  Total treatment time for most implant cases will usually be 5-8 months.  It could be longer if bone or gum procedures are needed.

      Q: I've heard that dental implants are experimental - is that true?

      A: Absolutely not!  Dental implants have a long history of use and success.  Implants are the most thoroughly researched procedure in the history of dentistry and, while no procedure is 100% successful, the current technology has resulted in very high success rates in the hands of well-trained and experienced clinicians.  Dental implants are carefully regulated by the FDA and a number of implant systems have been approved by the British and American Dental Association.

      Q: I've heard that dental implants are expensive.  How much do they cost?

      A:  The procedure can involve a significant investment, 

      Q: Does insurance pay for dental implants?

      A: most medical insurance companies or the Ntaional Health system will only pay for dental implants after trauma, cancer surgery and If you are born with missing teeth for example cleft lip and palate patients.



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      • Q12. What are the consequences of taking bisphosphonate medication?

      • Bisphosphonate (BPs) related osteonecrosis is becoming a common and significant problem for those patients affected. Because these drugs cause permanent changes in your bone metabolism, and your mouth is an area where the bone is exposed to bacteria and external environment constantly, the combination results in many patients developing dead bone exposure, infection and pain in their mouths.

        This complication can be prevented by timely dental treatment before going on BPs and continued monitoring post medication.

        What do I need to tell my doctor (oncologist, rheumatologist)?

        When you are diagnosed with osteoporosis or cancer involving your bones and BP medication you MUST get a dental opinion on your dental status and have interventional care to prevent future complications.


        What do I need to tell my dentist?

      • Do tell your dentist that you are diagnosed with osteoporosis or cancer involving your bones and that you have to start BP medication. Your dentists will ensure that you have special dental care to minimise future complications.

        This care may involve dental extractions, restorative care, oral hygiene instruction, dietary advice, fluoride supplement treatment. Ask you dentists to screen you before you go on this medication

        For further information see;

        Bisphosphonate Page - Scottish Dental






        Other dental emergencies

        How do I manage Tooth dental trauma?

        DO NOT replace childrens baby teeth

        Only ADULT teeth should be re inserted ideally immediately or with 25 minutes…still replace after a hour. Procedure;

        Hold tooth by crown shiny white end

        If dirty wash with milk briefly

        Replaced with biting on tissue 

        Go immediately to your dentist for splinting the tooth

        If you cant replace tooth keep it in milk and go straight to your dentist

          link to dental trauma guide http://www.dentaltraumaguide.org/



        How do I manage Fat face infection?

        Is it’s a Wisdom tooth infection http://www.videojug.com/film/how-to-deal-with-an-infected-wisdom-tooth


        If you have sudden onset facial swelling associated with toothache you need to seek treatment from your dentist immediately. 

        This is of an urgent nature if

        In children as infections can spread very quickly

        you are having difficulty swallowing or breathing

        you have a high temperature


        You will need the cause of your infection removed as soon as possible

        Usually an extraction of your tooth is needed

        Pain killers best are ibuprofen with paracetamol

        If your infection is spreading you may need additional antibiotic




      • How do I manage Dislocation of jaw ?

        When a patient dislocates his jaw, his mandibular condyles slip forward in their sockets over the articular eminences of his temporomandibular joints. This can happen when he laughs or yawns, or is hit in the face with his mouth open. The mouth of a patient with a dislocated jaw remains permanently half open in an anterior open bite. Swallowing is difficult, so that saliva dribbles from the corners of his lips. When you examine him, you find a small depression over his temporomandibular joints. If his mandible dislocates one side only, it deviates away from the midline.

        Normally patients have this happen commonly and become ver adept at ‘wiggling’ their own jaws back into place. If the replacement is delayed muscle spasm may prevent reduction of the dislocated jaw and the patient may need to go to their dentist or hospital for additional sedation and pain relief for reduction of their dislocated jaw.